America's Black Sea Fleet: The U.S. Navy Amidst War and - download pdf or read online

By Robert Shenk

ISBN-10: 1612510531

ISBN-13: 9781612510538

ISBN-10: 168247187X

ISBN-13: 9781682471876

In a high-tempo sequence of operations in the course of the Black Sea, Aegean Sea and japanese Mediterranean, a small American fleet of destroyers and different naval vessels answered ably to numerous significant overseas crises together with the final days of the Russian Revolution and the 1920-1922 Turkish Nationalist Revolution. officials and males of the navy's "four-piper" destroyers all started through investigating situations at the flooring in mainland Turkey correct after international battle I, and through transporting American aid groups to ports all through Turkey and Southern Russia to help the tens of hundreds of thousands of orphans and refugees who had survived the wartime Armenian genocide.

Then the destroyers assisted within the ultimate evacuation of 150,000 White Russians from the Crimea to Constantinople (one of the ultimate acts of the Russian Revolution); coordinated the visits of the Hoover grain ships to ports in Southern Russia the place thousands have been enduring a horrendous famine; witnessed and stated at the negative dolorosa of the Greeks of the Pontus regious of Turkey; and, in September of 1922, carried out the evacuation of thousands of Greek and Armenian refugees from burning Smyrna. This latter occasion used to be the cataclysmic end of the Turkish Nationalist Revolutino, which had started in early 1920.

After Smyrna, the destroyers escorted Greek steamers of their rescue of ethnic Christian civilians being expelled from the entire ports of Anatolian Turkey. because the end of a protracted battle among Nationalist Turks and an invading Hellenic Greek military, those humans have been being pressured out in their ancestral houses through the Turks. occasionally American destroyers carried 1000's of such refugees to pleasant ports on their lonesome climate decks.

Upon the burning of Smyrna of September of 1922, Admiral Mark Bristol's small fleet had grown to a couple 26 naval vessels, such a lot of them destroyers, even if a few cruisers, naval fix vessels and provide ships additionally got here, and the battleships Arizona and Utah additionally seemed in brief. It was once in the course of 1922 that the destroyer BAinbridge rescued 482 of 495 males, girls and youngsters from the burning French shipping Vinh lengthy in teh Sea of Marmora. The destroyer complete this through the expedient of ramming the big French send so the exploding ammunition couldn't proceed to strength the vessels aside. For this motion, Lieut.Commander W. Atlee Edwards used to be presented the Medal of Honor via the US, and the Legion of Honor through France.

Over 4 years, Admiral Bristol maintained a robust grip on American naval and diplomatic affairs during the quarter. situated on the American Embassy at Constantinople, Bristol additionally labored to extra American company pursuits in Turkey, and tended to desire Turks over Greeks and Armenians within the procedure. Many americans have been confident that Bristol used to be biased on behalf of the Turks, and 2 army captains risked their careers through talking out approximately forthcoming Turkish massacres that Bristol desired to hush up.

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America's Black Sea Fleet: The U.S. Navy Amidst War and Revolution, 1919–1923 by Robert Shenk


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